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    Final Publishable Summary MINOAS Final Report  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Report,
      author = {MINOAS},
      title = {Final Publishable Summary},
      booktitle = {MINOAS Final Report},
      year = {2012}
    }
    					
    D1 - Definition of the Inspection Plan / Definition of Acceptance Criteria MINOAS Public Deliverable  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{D1,
      author = {MINOAS},
      title = {D1 - Definition of the Inspection Plan / Definition of Acceptance Criteria},
      booktitle = {MINOAS Public Deliverable},
      year = {2011}
    }
    					
    D2 - Tentative draft Rules for acceptance of a hull Robot inspection MINOAS Public Deliverable  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{D2,
      author = {MINOAS},
      title = {D2 - Tentative draft Rules for acceptance of a hull Robot inspection},
      booktitle = {MINOAS Public Deliverable},
      year = {2011}
    }
    					
    D9 - Definition of a tentative standard procedure for a hull inspection by ROBOT MINOAS Public Deliverable  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{D9,
      author = {MINOAS},
      title = {D9 - Definition of a tentative standard procedure for a hull inspection by ROBOT},
      booktitle = {MINOAS Public Deliverable},
      year = {2011}
    }
    					
    D13 - MINOAS dissemination plan, web-site structure and promotion material templates (M3) MINOAS Public Deliverable  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{D13,
      author = {MINOAS},
      title = {D13 - MINOAS dissemination plan, web-site structure and promotion material templates (M3)},
      booktitle = {MINOAS Public Deliverable},
      year = {2011}
    }
    					
    D14 - Report on dissemination activities MINOAS Public Deliverable  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{D14,
      author = {MINOAS},
      title = {D14 - Report on dissemination activities},
      booktitle = {MINOAS Public Deliverable},
      year = {2011}
    }
    					
    MARC: Magnetic Autonomous Robotic Crawler Development and Exploitation in the MINOAS Project Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012  
    Abstract: This report summarizes the design of the MINOAS heavy climbing robot, able to support marking and thickness measure devices and displace them over the ship hold walls, according to technical specifics defined in the MINOAS Project. In particular, a Magnetic Autonomous Robotic Crawler (MARC) with track based locomotion and electrical propulsion has been designed, paying specific attention to the capability of operating on vertical walls, going beyond discontinuities between consecutive surfaces, and carrying a significant payload. This paper reports details about the electro-mechanical design, development of the automatic control systems, integration with the overall MINOAS architecture.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{COMPIT_MARC,
      author = {Bibuli, Marco and Bruzzone, Gabriele and Bruzzone, Giorgio and Caccia, Massimo and Giacopelli, Mauro and Petitti, Antonio and Spirandelli, Edoardo},
      title = {MARC: Magnetic Autonomous Robotic Crawler Development and Exploitation in the MINOAS Project},
      booktitle = {Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.ssi.tu-harburg.de/doc/webseiten_dokumente/compit/dokumente/Proceeding_Compit2012_Liege.pdf}
    }
    					
    Robot Task Allocation and Path-Planning Systems in the MINOAS Project Framework (I) Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation  
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the architecture of the task allocation and path-planning systems, of the MINOAS project, specifying individual robots' modules and the integration within a centralized system. In particular, a logical tree-based description of the ship structure is introduced; on the basis of such logical description, task allocation and path-planning procedures are developed, in order to associate robotic resources to the areas involved by the inspection and, consequently, to design the reference paths that the robots will pursue to carry out the vessel inspection.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Minoas2MED11,
      author = {Bibuli, Marco and Bruzzone, Gabriele and Caccia, Massimo},
      title = {Robot Task Allocation and Path-Planning Systems in the MINOAS Project Framework (I)},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation},
      year = {2011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983105}
    }
    					
    The MINOAS Project: Marine INspection Robotic Assistant System (I) Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation  
    Abstract: In this paper an overall description of the MINOAS project is reported. The project proposes an innovative approach to improve ship inspection methodology, complementing human personnel with cutting-edge robotic platforms, able to autonomously carry out inspection tasks, allowing in this way the human operators to 'virtually' execute the inspection from a control room. This paper provides an overview of the project motivations, concept and goals, specifications of the MINOAS system, in particular with respect to an accurate analysis of the tasks executed during vessel inspections, the proposed overall architecture and the classes of robots that will be considered as a possible help to the human inspector.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Minoas1MED11,
      author = {Bibuli, Marco and Bruzzone, Gabriele and Caccia, Massimo and Ortiz, Alberto and Eich, Markus and Kolyvas, Efthymios},
      title = {The MINOAS Project: Marine INspection Robotic Assistant System (I)},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation},
      year = {2011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983104}
    }
    					
    An AdaBoost-Based Approach for Coating Breakdown Detection in Metallic Surfaces (I) Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation  
    Abstract: Vessel maintenance entails periodic visual inspections of internal and external parts of the vessel hull in order to detect structural failures. Typically, this is done by trained surveyors at great cost. Clearly, assisting them during the inspection process by means of a fleet of robots capable of defect detection would decrease the inspection cost. In this paper, a novel algorithm for visual detection of coating breakdown is presented. The algorithm is based on an AdaBoost scheme to combine multiple weak classifiers based on Laws’ texture energy filter responses. After a number of enhancements, the method has proved successful, while the execution times remain contained.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Minoas4MED11,
      author = {Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco and Ortiz, Alberto},
      title = {An AdaBoost-Based Approach for Coating Breakdown Detection in Metallic Surfaces (I)},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation},
      year = {2011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983121}
    }
    					
    Combination of Weak Classifiers for Metallic Corrosion Detection and Guided Crack Location Proc. of the IEEE Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation conference  
    Abstract: Periodic visual inspection of the internal and external parts of vessels hull is typically performed by trained surveyors at great cost. Assisting them during the inspection process by means of mechanisms capable of defect detection would certainly decrease inspection cost. With this aim, this paper presents a corrosion detection algorithm built around a weak classifiers cascade scheme and reports on its performance. As a secondary contribution, a crack detection approach guided by the output of the corrosion detector is also proposed. As a result, false positives rate is reduced as well as the computation time.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{etfa2010b,
      author = {Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco and Ortiz, Alberto},
      title = {Combination of Weak Classifiers for Metallic Corrosion Detection and Guided Crack Location},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation conference},
      year = {2010},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2010.5641267}
    }
    					
    Design and Control of a Lightweight Magnetic Climbing Robot for Vessel Inspection (I) Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation  
    Abstract: The inspection of marine vessels is currently performed manually. Inspectors use sensors (e.g. cameras, devices for non-destructive testing) to detect damaged areas, cracks, and corrosion in large cargo holds, tanks, and other parts of a ship. Due to the size and complex geometry of most ships, ship inspection is time-consuming and expensive. The EU-funded project MINOAS develops concepts for a Marine Inspection Robotic Assistant System to improve and to automate ship inspections. As one example of a physical system implementation, we introduce our magnetic wall-climbing robot. This remotely operated lightweight system is able to climb a vessels steel frame and is able to deliver visual inspection data on-line. For any type of surveying process, the raw and meta data are mandatory in order to compare inspection data over time. In this paper, we describe our approach of how the magnetic climbing robot is localized and controlled. Additionally, we describe the design of the robot as well as the localization device which is able to provide a real-time 3D pose of the inspection robot.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Minoas3MED11,
      author = {Eich, Markus and Vögele, Thomas},
      title = {Design and Control of a Lightweight Magnetic Climbing Robot for Vessel Inspection (I)},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation},
      year = {2011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983075}
    }
    					
    A Magnetic Climbing Robot for Marine Inspection Services Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012  
    Abstract: Currently, the inspection of sea-going vessels is performed manually. Ship surveyors do a visual inspection; in some cases they also use cameras and non-destructive testing methods. Prior to a ship surveying process a lot of scaffolding has to be provided in order to make every spot accessible for the surveyor. In this work a robotic system is presented, which is able to access many areas of a cargo hold of a ship and perform visual inspection without any scaffolding. The paper also describes how the position of the acquired data is estimated with an optical 3D tracking unit and how critical points on the hull can be marked via a remote controlled marker device. Furthermore first results of onboard tests with the system are provided.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{COMPIT_DFKI,
      author = {Fondahl, Kristin and Eich, Markus and Wollenberg, Johannes and Kirchner, Frank},
      title = {A Magnetic Climbing Robot for Marine Inspection Services},
      booktitle = {Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.ssi.tu-harburg.de/doc/webseiten_dokumente/compit/dokumente/Proceeding_Compit2012_Liege.pdf}
    }
    					
    Detection of Cracks and Corrosion for Automated Vessels Visual Inspection School: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Balearic Islands  
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{CiscMaster,
      author = {Francisco Bonnin-Pascual},
      title = {Detection of Cracks and Corrosion for Automated Vessels Visual Inspection},
      school = {Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Balearic Islands},
      year = {2010}
    }
    					
    Robotic Arm Development for Ultrasonic Inspection Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012  
    Abstract: In this article the development of a robotic arm to undertake the ultrasonic inspection of ship's structure is analyzed. To facilitate the ship's inspection and increase reachability of the various parts the robotic arm is aimed to be mounted on a Magnetic Autonomous Robotic Crawler (MARC) developed within MINOAS as well. Given the harsh conditions within a cargo ship ultrasonic measurement can be proved to be a tedious task, even for robots. In this paper the mechanical design of the arm is detailed, while some experimental data are provided to validate the controller's and overall system's performance.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{COMPIT_GLAFCOS,
      author = {Koveos, Yannis and Kolyvas, Themis and Drikos, Leonidas},
      title = {Robotic Arm Development for Ultrasonic Inspection},
      booktitle = {Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.ssi.tu-harburg.de/doc/webseiten_dokumente/compit/dokumente/Proceeding_Compit2012_Liege.pdf}
    }
    					
    Detection of Cracks and Corrosion for Automated Vessels Visual Inspection
    Vol. 220 Proceedings of the Catalan Congress on Artificial Intelligence , pp. 111  
    Abstract: Vessel maintenance entails periodic visual inspections of internal and external parts of the vessel hull in order to detect cracks and corroded areas. Typically,this is done by trained surveyors at great cost. Clearly, assisting them during the inspection process by means of a fleet of robots capable of defect detection would decrease the inspection cost. In this paper, two algorithms are presented for visual detection of the aforementioned two kinds of defects. On the one hand, the crack detector is based on a percolation process that exploits the morphological properties of cracks in steel surfaces. On the other hand, the corrosion detector follows a supervised classification approach taking profit from the spatial distribution of color in rusty areas. Both algorithms have shown successful rates of detection with close to real-time performance
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ortiz2010,
      author = {Ortiz, Alberto and Bonnin-Pascual},
      title = {Detection of Cracks and Corrosion for Automated Vessels Visual Inspection},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Catalan Congress on Artificial Intelligence},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {220},
      pages = {111}
    }
    					
    On the Use of UAVs for Vessel Inspection Assistance Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Research, Education and Development on Unmanned Aerial Systems, Seville (Spain), Nov 30th - Dec 1st , pp. 71-80  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{reduas2011,
      author = {Ortiz, Alberto and Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco and Garcia-Fidalgo, Emilio},
      title = {On the Use of UAVs for Vessel Inspection Assistance},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Research, Education and Development on Unmanned Aerial Systems, Seville (Spain), Nov 30th - Dec 1st},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {71--80}
    }
    					
    First Steps towards a Roboticized Visual Inspection System for Vessels Proc. of the IEEE Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation conference  
    Abstract: Vessel maintenance entails periodic visual inspections of internal and external parts of the vessel hull in order to detect the typical defective situations affecting metallic structures, such as cracks, corrosion, etc. This paper presents the first steps towards a roboticized visual inspection system aiming at automating as much as possible the whole inspection process currently undertaken by human surveyors. Occurrence of defects are first outlined, followed by a brief description of the whole system. Next, details for one of the robotic platforms to be used are given, as well as for the image processing algorithms dealing with the visual detection of defects
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{etfa2010a,
      author = {Ortiz, Alberto and Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco and Gibbins, Andrew and Apostolopoulou, Panagiota and Bateman, William and Eich, Markus and Spadoni, Francesco and Caccia, Massimo and Drikos, Leonidas},
      title = {First Steps towards a Roboticized Visual Inspection System for Vessels},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation conference},
      year = {2010},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2010.5641246}
    }
    					
    A Micro Aerial Vehicle for Vessel Visual Inspection Assistance Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012  
    Abstract: Vessel maintenance entails periodic visual inspections of internal and external parts of the hull in order to detect the typical defective situations affecting metallic structures, such as cracks, coating breakdown, corrosion, etc. The main goal of the EU-FP7 project MINOAS is the automation of the inspection process, currently undertaken by human surveyors, by means of a fleet of robotic agents. This paper overviews a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) to be used as part of this fleet, and describes the control software approach that has been adopted, with special emphasis on self-localization and obstacle avoidance. Experimental results in this regard are included and discussed at the end of the paper.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{COMPIT_UIB,
      author = {Ortiz, Alberto and Garcia-Fidalgo, Emilio and Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco},
      title = {A Micro Aerial Vehicle for Vessel Visual Inspection Assistance},
      booktitle = {Proc. 11th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT 2012},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.ssi.tu-harburg.de/doc/webseiten_dokumente/compit/dokumente/Proceeding_Compit2012_Liege.pdf}
    }
    					
    A Control Software Architecture for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles Inspired in Generic Components (I) Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation  
    Abstract: This paper describes GLOC3, a general software control architecture intended for unmanned vehicles. Applying a criterion of maximizing software maintainability and reusability, as well as fulfilling the monitoring and logging needs that arise from any experimental platform, this architecture is based on a single minimalist generic component. Besides, this software infrastructure is intended to make easier both the specification of experiments and missions at the different development stages. The case of the control architecture of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, to be employed as part of the robot fleet of the MINOAS project, is considered by way of illustration.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Minoas6MED11,
      author = {Ortiz, Albertoand Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco and Garcia-Fidalgo, Emilio and Beltran, Joan P.},
      title = {A Control Software Architecture for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles Inspired in Generic Components (I)},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation},
      year = {2011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983136}
    }
    					
    Towards the automated visual detection of cracks and corrosion in vessel hulls Invited talk, Royal Institution of Naval Architects (London) 
    Abstract: Structural failures are a major cause of accidents in vessels, and can usually be prevented through timely maintenance. As such, vessels undergo annual inspections, with intensive Special and Docking Surveys every five years, which ensures that the hull structure and related piping are all in satisfactory condition and are fit for the intended use over the next five years. The enormity of the inspection task, the fact that the survey is performed in an unsafe environment, the total cost of a single survey, and the loss of opportunity that takes place while the ship is inoperable, justifies the introduction of any level of automation that can lead to a reduction of the inspection time, a reduction of the costs involved and/or an increase in the safety of the operation. This is the main motivation for the EU FP7 project MINOAS. Apart from other tasks related with the introduction of proper robotic technologies within the inspection procedures, MINOAS addresses the development of visual detection techniques for the typical defects affecting the hull of a vessel, namely cracks and corrosion. This talk will present first, although promising, results in this regard.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{AlbTalk,
      author = {Alberto Ortiz Rodriguez},
      title = {Towards the automated visual detection of cracks and corrosion in vessel hulls},
      year = {2010}
    }
    					
    Requirements and Design of a Reliable Network to Support Roboticized Vessels Inspections (I) Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation  
    Abstract: Periodic inspections of large vessels imply complex, time-consuming and costly activities which could be greatly improved by an extensive use of automation and information and communication technologies. This paper presents the first results of the development of a networking architecture supporting roboticized semi-automatic class inspections of vessels, trying to accommodate the different specific requirements and the typical harsh environments found on-board ships. It first introduces a novel use case, then deduces requirements and finally presents an initial design for networking architecture. We started by analyzing requirements for roboticized inspection procedures, identified and collected the constraints and issues affecting communication during inspection, and performed a desktop research on state-of-the-art technologies, and finally propose an high level solution
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Minoas5MED11,
      author = {Spadoni, Francesco and Grippo, Valerio},
      title = {Requirements and Design of a Reliable Network to Support Roboticized Vessels Inspections (I)},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation},
      year = {2011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983180}
    }
    					
    A Hybrid Legged Wheel Climbing Robot for Marine Inspection In Emerging Trends in Mobile Robotics, CLAWAR-2010  
    Abstract: The inspection of marine vessels is currently performed manually. Inspectors use sensors (e.g. cameras, devices for non-destructive testing) to detect damaged areas, cracks, and corrosion in large cargo holds, tanks, and other parts of a ship. Due to the size and complex geometry of most ships, ship inspection is time-consuming and expensive. The EU funded project MINOAS develops concepts for a Marine Inspection Robotic Assistant System to improve and automate ship inspection. A central part of MINOAS is to evaluate the use of a cooperative fleet of robots, including areal drones, magnetic climbing robots, and underwater crawlers, for ship inspection. In this paper we describe a first concept for one component of the MINOAS robot eet, a magnetic crawler for the inspection of large cargo holds and large tanks. We show how a lightweight system using magnetic wheels (including hybrid leg-wheels) and a passive magnetic tail can successfully climb tall metallic walls and overcome small obstacles.
    BibTeX:
    @conference{CLAWAR2010,
      author = {Vögele, Thomas and Eich, Markus and Grimminger, Felix and Fondahl, Kristin},
      title = {A Hybrid Legged Wheel Climbing Robot for Marine Inspection},
      booktitle = {In Emerging Trends in Mobile Robotics, CLAWAR-2010},
      year = {2010}
    }
    					

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